Krushari Municipality is in Dobrich Province, northeastern Bulgaria. It is in the southern Dobrudzha, bordering on Romania. It is a rural municipality without any significant city or town. Krushari village is the administrative seat.
History of Krushari Municipality
Krushari and the surrounding villages that form the southern half of the Krushari municipality have attracted people since ancient times. Archaeological materials indicate that this place has been inhabited by man since ancient times. Later it was inhabited by the nomads who came from the eastern steppes, to which the archeological cultures of early and late bronze are associated. The traces of the presence of these warlike tribes are the finds of copper and bronze daggers and daggers, and later the blades of spears, axes and knives, found by chance in the area of Krushari and the surrounding villages. Especially intense is the life during the early Iron Age, which is judged by the numerous settlements, mound necropolises, fortresses and fortifications. After the devastating campaigns of the Daco-Ghetto ruler Burebista, the area was once again inhabited and flourished during the Roman Empire, as evidenced by the numerous settlements. Significant centers at that time were the Zalapa fortresses (today Kaleto in the land of the village of Dobrin), St. Cyril (today in the territory of Kapitan Dimitrovo village), the uninstalled fortress in the territory of Gaber village, the non-fortified religious center near the present village of Telerig, etc., which are urban and cultural centers of great influence and importance in today’s northeastern Bulgarian lands .
Started in IVc. The great migration of peoples was gradually destroying the vast Roman Empire, its administrative system, its roads and its settlement structure, while its life did not interrupt completely but gradually fade away, moving from convenient fields, to hard-to-reach, fortified places. The remains of Zalapa also testify to this. In late antiquity, the so-called federations of German, Sarmatian or Hun tribes were increasingly employed in the role of protector of fortresses and fortifications. Probably as a result of their presence, the necropolis in the nearby village of Alexandria, which has not yet been fully explored, has remained unexplored. During the 7th century many settlements were destroyed by the campaigns of Avars and Slavs. After their devastating raids, accompanied by mass abduction of populations north of the Danube, life on this region died down until the arrival of the Proto-Bulgarian tribes.
With the period of the greatest power of the First Bulgarian Kingdom in the end of IX and Xc. The region experienced a new heyday, ending in the mid-tenth century with the Russian and Byzantine invasion in 969 – 971. Bulgaria managed to liberate these lands in 976, but they were conquered again in 1001. Only a quarter of a century later, the devastating Pechenian invasions began, almost completely depopulating the area. With the restoration of the Bulgarian kingdom in 1185, these lands were once again vacant, but with the crisis of Bulgarian statehood since the mid-13th century and the Tatar invasions that had begun, Bulgarians in the area were again put to the test. With the fall of Bulgaria under Turkish slavery, life here has almost died away. The old population was either slaughtered, slaughtered, or expelled. One of the last significant events left archeological monuments in the area of Koriten and the villages around it is the march of the Polish-Hungarian King Vladislav III Jagiello to Constantinople. In the memorable battle near Varna in 1444. the army of the Christian coalition was defeated by Sultan Murad II. In the ensuing canal retreat (bloody road), many of the knights take refuge near the desolate ruins of the area’s strongholds. That is where their last battles against the Turks are given, all of which have been lost to one.
Life in the area began to slowly recover only in the early nineteenth century. The historical turmoil in this region is collected here by immigrants from Eastern Bulgaria: from Thrace (Edirne) and Stara Zagora, from the Balkans (Gabrovo and Varbitsa) and from northeastern Bulgaria (Shoumen). When they come here, they bring with them the peculiarities of their life and culture.
The first Bulgarian settlers in Krushari (then Armutli – from the Turkish word armut – pear) were the brothers Boycho and Stoil Stoyanov. They come from the village of Kovchaz, Thrace, around 1810-1812, and are holes. After them came families from Novozagorsko, from Veliko Turnovo – the Vulkoyordanovs, from the Stara Zagora – the Shupnalovs and Karaivans, from the village of Cherventsi (Valchidolsko) and others. In the following years, about 10-15 Bulgarian families were displaced to Bessarabia because of the Turkish violence by Krushari. After a few years, they return to their village, but find their houses burned. Later on, the Turkish families gradually moved out. During the Crimean War (1854), all Bulgarians from the Krushar villages moved for the second time to Bessarabia, in the vicinity of Bender. They stayed there for about three years and returned after the war.
Because Krushari is surrounded by Turkish villages, its inhabitants often endure the bullying of the enslaved. Because of the violence during the Liberation War, in June 1877. all Bulgarians from Krushari flee to Tulchan villages for the third time.
After the end of the war, they returned to the village, but they found it burnt down and started restoring their property. Since Krushari is a special type of center, the seat of the Turkish gendarmerie during the Ottoman rule, immediately after the Liberation it became the seat of a municipality with nine villages (Armutlii, Azaplar, Erdzhi, Kokardzha, Paradzik, Baraklar, Kara-kushla, Küçük Ahmed, Khasukhrid, Khasuk Ahmedes .
The first mayor of Krushari since 1878 is Dimas Trifonov from the village of Kokardja, a former MP in the Constituent Assembly in Veliko Tarnovo.
The free life in the Bulgarian state continued until the First Romanian Occupation (1913 – 1916). After the short-term liberation came the second occupation (1918 – 1940) and the village remained under the oppression of the enslaveer until September 18, 1940, when the Bulgarian troops liberated under the Crausari treaty. On November 7, 1940. 1080 residents of the Armutlian municipality make up 206 families, migrants from North Dobrudja. They are housed in the houses of the Romanian colonists who leave Dobrudja and return to Romania.
The first information about the presence of a Bulgarian school in the village dates from 1850 – 1851. It was housed in a room in the home of Boycho Todorov, and the teacher was Todor Boychev Avdzhiev. After 1860. the school is housed in the church building. Maintenance is at the expense of the population. In 1898, a new school was built and is still preserved. In 1891 the school grew into a high school. Due to the increase in the number of students, the building proved to be insufficient and in 1971 a new one was built with spacious study rooms, profiled offices and a gym.
Apart from school, during the Renaissance the Bulgarians in Krushari built a church of rods, which existed from 1853 to 1877. It was the first church in the area, but during the Russo-Turkish Liberation War (1877) it was burned to the ground. The main stone of the new church was laid on Dimitrovden in 1882. In the spring of 1883 the construction was continued and completed the same year. The church, called “St. Dimitar “is still preserved today. The first priest is Peter Stoilov, ordained around 1868 – 1869. He served continuously until his death.
Following the Craiova Treaty of September 7, 1940. and the return of South Dobrudzha to Bulgaria, the village of Krushari again becomes the center of the municipality. By September 9, 1944, the village became involved in the socio-political, economic and spiritual life of the country and developed under wartime conditions and state regulation of the economy. It was named Krushari in 1942. Until then, it is called Armutli. The main economic sectors are agriculture and animal husbandry. On December 23, 1940. Consumer Cooperative Light is founded in Krushari. The Hristo Smirnenski Primary School started functioning in 1942, and the Public Library “Jordan Dragnev” in 1941.
September 9, 1944 until November 10, 1989. is the time of the communist regime, of the construction of the so-called “socialist society” of the Soviet type. This regime is characterized by the total hegemony of the Communist Party, the centralized planned development of the economy, and the overarching dominance of Marxist-Leninist ideology in education and culture.
September 9, 1944 until 1979. Krushari village is a municipal center. On September 23, 1945. in the village was established the Lenin Tourist Board and in 1949 the MTS. In 1946. the first tractor arrives. Next year, the Lenin TCS receives 170 kg of wheat per ha, 147 kg of barley and 103 kg of beans.
On April 14, 1951, the 236th decree of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party and the Council of Ministers “On the Development of Agriculture, Water Supply and Electrification of Dobrudzha” was promulgated. With its implementation until 1956, the agriculture in this region was modernized, the severity of the food problem in the country was dull, water, electricity and roads were connected to a considerable part of the Dobrudzha settlements. The village of Krushari was completely supplied with water in 1957.
In 1958, the second concentration of land and production began in the TSS through their integration into the merged and united TSSs. The enlisted TCUs in the united become brigades for agricultural production. The United Interconnection Center “C. I. Lenin ”in Krushari was established in 1959.
In the 1960s, the streets of the village began to be asphalted, landscaped and landscaped, pavements were built and illuminated. Krushartsi live in new spacious homes, many of which are on two floors. They are modernly furnished. They have electricity and water, refrigerators, electrical appliances, TVs, radios, radio points. Quite a few residents have cars, bikes and bicycles. Healthcare is free. The rural health service employs a doctor, dentist, midwife, nurses, and orderlies. There is an ambulance. The physical movement is developing. The activity of the community center is growing. Good results are achieved in education.
On September 19, 1963, the first public-service shop in the country opened in Krushari, built with the voluntary work of young people working in the consumer cooperative and with funds from the Regional Cooperative Union. The combined TCS achieves good production results. On October 25, 1969, a sewing shop was opened in the building of the former MTS, and 26 seamstresses work there, sewing baby, baby and work clothes. Thereafter, the number of seamstresses increased to 350 women, who produce 5 million leva. Pants and wedges are sewn for export. A carpentry workshop is being built in Krushari at the SDB “Bryast” – Tolbukhin. It employs 7 people who produce production for 120 thousand leva
In 1970, the third concentration of agriculture in Bulgaria took place. APCs are created. There are 9 agro-industrial complexes in the Tolbukhin district. APK “Ninth of September” -Krushari was established on July 29, 1970. It unites the TKZS in the villages of Krushari, Colonel Dyakovo, Telerig, Koriten and DZS in Koriten and Abrit. Its directors over the years are: Dimitar Mihaylov, Mincho Krichev, Iliya Kolev and Nikolay Ivanov. At that time, one of the largest agro-industrial complexes in the country was the agro-industrial complex “Dobrudzha” (Tolbukhin – east) and agro-industrial complex – General Toshevo, which manage over 550,000 acres of agricultural land. There are 7 industrial production crews and 3 livestock-feed complexes in the APK “Ninth of September” – Krushari. The Krushari crew alone cultivates 49,130 acres of land. In 1978 APK – Krushari received record yields: 502 kg of wheat per ha, 232 kg of sunflower seeds, 179 kg of beans and 3 323 liters of cow’s milk. It builds a holiday base on the northern Black Sea coast, between Balchik and Kavarna, where the workers in the agro-industrial complex are resting. He also builds a pioneer camp on the Black Sea, where students from the municipality rest in the summer.
In 1979, Krushari became the center of the settlement system. It includes 20 villages with a population of 10 679 people. It covers an area of 425.4 square kilometers. Agriculture and livestock play a leading role in its economy. The Krushar settlement system provides 10% of the wheat production in the Tolbuhin district, 8% of the sunflower, 9% of the tobacco, 8% of the meat. The industry is represented by the joint stock company “Ninth of May” – Krushari, which produces glass packets, from the branch of “Metal” – Tolbukhin Combine Plant, for the production of aggregate units and parts for agricultural machines, the workshop of the Orlov sewing plant – Tolbuchin, the workshop “Sitopachat”. To the PKK – Krushari. The municipal industrial complex sells products for BGN 7 million
In the 1980s, Krushari had the Hristo Smirnenski ECTS, which had a rich material base. Chitalishte “Jordan Dragnev” performs large-scale and diverse cultural and mass work. Amateur art groups and groups are successfully presented at municipal and county reviews and holidays. The library at the community center has a large book stock. In 1981, a museum collection was opened in Krushari.
Long-time leader of APK “Ninth of September” – Krushari is Mincho Kraychev – twice a hero of socialist labor and twice a winner of the order “Georgi Dimitrov”. The first time in 1967, when he was chairman of the Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Ovcharovo, the second time – in 1974, when he was chairman of the APK – Tervel. Mincho Krichev was born in 1925. in the village of Lomnitsa, Dobrich. In 1948. is one of the founders of TKZS in the village of Lomnitsa, of which he became chairman in 1954. He was subsequently elected chairman of the TKZS in the village of Ovcharovo. After the construction of the agro-industrial complex, he managed the agro-industrial complex in the town of Tervel. and APK “Ninth of September” in Krushari. With OTCC – Ovcharovo Mincho Kraychev is a three-time district and twice national champion. He died in 2013. at the age of 87.
During the whole period sports activity is very active. All villages have football teams without exception. The best of them is fk. Orlov – the village of Krushari, which in 1990. has been renamed Zarya. The best ranking of the team is the quarterfinals for the Cup of Bulgaria in 1991, played with “Pirin” – Blagoevgrad and lost in completely equal to the professional club duel. Handball sport is also developing in the village of Krushari. The local team becomes the district champion five times in succession and is one of the best teams in the country. The biggest sporting success for Krushari and to this day remains the achievement of Vasil Ivanov Petkov, who in 1956 became a Republican champion in equestrian sport with his horse “Sinibol”.
Since November 10, 1989, Krushari has developed in a democratization and market economy. Private ownership is predominant. The village continues to be the center of a municipality with an area of 417.5 square kilometers, comprising 19 settlements, with 7 243 inhabitants. The cultivated land is 276,500 acres. Agriculture is a major livelihood of the population. The municipality has 1 secondary school, 2 primary schools, 6 community centers, a folklore fair in the village of Alexandria next to the monastery “St. Elijah. ” The holiday of the municipality is September 14 – the cross day.
More than 1300 years ago in Dobrudzha, the place where today the Krushar municipality is located, in this beautiful place, which is intertwined with a rich history, unique culture and unique nature, marks the beginning of present-day Bulgaria. In this land, located at the crossroads between East and West, a “gate” between Europe and Asia in the Balkans, they meet different tribes and peoples who lived for a short time or longer, chose the plain for their home, and left their marks. .The pipe of Bulgarian statehood and its majesty, the land of ruler Dobrotitsa is not only the place where Bulgaria and the Bulgarian nationality was born in the 7th century, but also the land that reminds us who we are and where we are going from, and preserves the vital roots of the Bulgarian spirit; unique corner; in which one can go back to the beginning, to follow the colorful path of the Bulgarian tradition, followed by the Dobrudzhans over the centuries; to rediscover the beauty of the created and preserved to this day original folk art, customs and folklore.
The traditional heritage of the Krushar region also looks at Dobrudzha’s fateful historical fate and the complex political conjuncture and the dynamic ethno-cultural development of the area. Turkish wars in the XVIII – XIX centuries. and depopulation alternate with periods of relative political calm, accelerated colonization, active migration movements to the region, raising its economic significance, and despite all the turning events, the continuity of the Bulgarian population is preserved
In chronological terms, the migration processes in Dobrudzha, also affecting the population in the Krushar region, go through several major stages. The first stage covers the period from the beginning of the Ottoman rule to the end of the 17th century. As the ethno-demographic process common to the whole area, there is a significant decrease in the Christian population and an increase in the Muslim population. The first mass movement of Bulgarians from north to south was associated with the Ottoman invasion and the early centuries of slavery, with emigrants from northeastern Bulgaria, mainly from Shumen, crossing the Balkans and settling in the Thracian Plain. In the following centuries, a reverse process was observed whereby the so-called “Zagorians” moved secondarily to the north, to Russia and Bessarabia, while on their way some of them settled in Dobrudzha and in some settlements in Krusharsko and later they come back and stay here.
The next stage of active migration movements, predominantly due to foreign policy factors, covers the time from the end of the eighteenth century to the 30s of the nineteenth century. During the Russo-Turkish wars of 1768–1774. and 1787–1791, 1806–12. many families leave their homes and head to Wallachia, Moldova, Russia, but the largest expatriate stream – about 100,000 people – was born from the war of 1828-1829. The emigrants, mainly from Southeastern Bulgaria / in the greater part of Thrace /, also bring with them a considerable part of the Dobrudzha population. Only a few years later, some of these Bulgarians took the return journey from Bessarabia and settled in Dobrudzha.
In the following period – from the 1930s to the Liberation in 1878, the conditions for a new stage of relative political calm, accelerated colonization and the economic importance of the region were gradually created. Its ethno-demographic appearance is changing, with the main migratory flow through which the Bulgarian population is increasing, coming from Shumen, Provadia, the Balkans and Thrace. The last stage covers the period from the Liberation to the middle of the twentieth century. This period is characterized by the expulsion of the Muslim population, the active internal movement of Bulgarians in the area, with the largest movement being the migration from North Dobrudzha in 1940–41.
The migration processes thus outlined also cover the population of the Krushar region. A complex combination of geographical, economic, political and other factors from the end of XIVc. to the middle of XXc. brings in settlers from different parts of the region seeking rescue or work, temporary living or a permanent new home. Different ethnic, ethnographic groups, ethno-religious communities live for centuries in close contact, meet and interact with different cultures, intertwine the destinies of whole settlements, genera, individual human experiences; creating the conditions for a highly culturally diverse tradition; there is a colorful ethnographic mosaic of the region. In this native Bulgarian land we will meet the descendants of the settlers from Thrace and the Balkans, Macedonia and Northern Dobrudzha, Bessarabia and Moldova and where else …
In most settlements the population is mixed and consists of different ethnographic groups. Among the relatively new settlers is the most numerous group of Thracians, migrants from Sliven, Yambol, Stara Zagora and others. Particularly important are the Balkan people who came from Elensko, Gabrovsko, Dryanovsko, Turnovo and others. The Balkan population also includes boilers. The largest among them is the group of Kotel shepherds who settled with their herds in the Dobrudzha plain, as well as settlers after the fire in Kotel 1894. The amalgam of ethnographic groups is supplemented by migrants from Shumen, Provadia, Razgrad, Ruse, Odrin and others. .
There is also a large group of migrants from North Dobrudzha. After the return of South Dobrudzha to Bulgaria in 1940. they settle down compactly in different settlements of the district. Of the 67,000 displaced persons, 1080 people (206 families) are settled in the present-day Krushar municipality. The composition of this population is quite varied, but in fact it is mostly from Shumen, Provadia, Thrace, the Balkans and various places in southeastern Bulgaria. Settled after the Russo-Turkish wars of the first half of the 19th century, these Bulgarians resided for some time in Bessarabia, later returning to their homeland and settling in Northern Dobrudzha.
Most settlements in the present-day Krushari municipality were founded during the Ottoman rule. We find written information about this in various Ottoman documents from the 16th to the 17th centuries – the register of the Jelekesians, inventories of collected tax collections / jizies /, registers for the Yurts and others. At the end of the seventeenth century, the existing villages had a Turkish-Muslim appearance, and this trend continued in the next century. After the Peace of Edirne of 1829. the Bulgarian population in Dobrudja is significantly increasing, the ethno-demographic picture is gradually changing and the Bulgarian national image of the region is being strengthened. At that time, Bulgarians were 134 331 people, followed by the Turks – 106 830. Romanians, Tatars, Gypsies, Greeks, Armenians, Jews and others also live in the villages and towns. Such ethnic diversity is also characteristic of the Krushar region, with different percentages varying between different population groups. Both in the past and today, Christianity and Islam are the major denominations in the area.
For the first time the village of Krushari / Armutli / was mentioned in an Ottoman document from 1526–1527. under the name Armudluja. Probably then the first steps towards settlement, which coincides with the beginning of the Turkish colonization of northeastern Bulgaria. Data on the village are also available in the Ottoman tax register of Jepkes / sheep breeders. There it is recorded with two neighborhoods – Ardlu and Artugmischler, who identify with today’s Krushari. In the register of yurts of 1584. / Turkish shepherds / is noted by the name Armudlu. In an Ottoman document of 1676. the neighboring village of Paradzhik (Bistrets) is also mentioned, which probably belonged to the already existing Armutli. The beginning of the new period in the life of the village is connected with 1810. and the settlement of the two brothers Boycho and Stoil Stoyanov, who came from the village of Kovchas, Thrace, and were called Rupki. In 1828-1829, caravans of expatriates from the Balkan Mountains and Eastern Thrace passed through Dobrudzha, traveling to Bessarabia with the Russian troops. They are joined by residents of the village of Krushari. They stayed there for a few years, but returned only to the ashes of their houses and began to rebuild their homes and their home life. Later, families from Edirne, Novozagorsko, Dryanovsko, Kotlensko, Turnovo, Chervena Voda, Ruse and others came here as well. For the second time, the inhabitants of Krushari leave after the Russian troops at the end of the Crimean War / 1853 – 1856 /, find themselves in the vicinity of Bender, where they stay for several years. After the Crimean War, Tatars came here, but they did move out after the Liberation. In 1873. the village is mentioned by the name Armutla, it is located in Silistrenska said and there are 19 non-Muslim houses, which are most likely Bulgarian. In 1875. in the region come Bulgarians from Edirne, who settle in the villages of Krushari, Zementsi, and Bistrets, the latter come Bulgarians and from Varbishko. During the Liberation War of 1877–1878, the population was subjected to robbery and harassment by a fanatical Muslim population, which is why Christians fled to Bulgarian villages around Tulcea. After returning for a short stay in North Dobrudzha, they find their homes destroyed again and start building on the rubble again. Before the Liberation, the village was included in the Hadjioglupazardzhik said. In the period since the Liberation in 1878. to 1906 it is the seat of a municipality with 9 villages: Armutlii, with Azaplar / Dyakovo /, Erdzhi, / Zementsi /, Kokardzha / Zagorci /, Paradzik / Bistrets /, Baraklar / Bakalovo /, Karakashla / Zimnitsa /, Kyuchuk Ahmed / Nadezhda /, Khas Küssler / Telerig /. In 1914. The village is almost entirely Bulgarian and has 628 inhabitants, of which 599 are Bulgarians, 14 Gypsies, 3 Greeks, 3 Turks, 2 Armenians, 5 Albanians, 2 Romanians. At the heart of the name is the word armud, armudlu, meaning pear.
In 1927, the Romanians called it unofficially Peres, which in Turkish also means pear. The settlement may have originated in a pear-lit terrain. On June 27, 1942. the village of Armutli was renamed Krushari.
The village of Lozenets / Kara Baglar / is mentioned in 1573. in the tax register of the Dzhelepkeshans under the name Kara Balullar, and was later recorded in documents from 1676. In 1873. it is included in the Hadjioglupazardzhishka / Dobrich / House with 18 Muslim houses. The word Baglar (from Persian) means vineyards, meaning the name of the village can be translated “black vineyards”. In the western part of the village there were once many vineyards with black grapes. There was also an old fortress known
such as “Asarkale” / “aser” – fortress /. The other assumption of the etymology of the name is Kara Abalar – that is, black Abi, and is probably related to the clothing of people coming from the mountains of Albania. The main part of the population consists of settlers from Shumen region, as well as settlers from Kotlensko, Gabrovsko, Troyan, Haskovo, Chirpansko and others. In 1914. 405 people live in Lozenets, of which 244 Bulgarians, 98 Turks, 21 Romanians, 20 Gypsies, 19 Germans, 2 Greeks, 1 Serb. The new name from 1942. it is also related to past viticulture. By decree of 29.12.1959. the village of Lozenets merges the village of Strelets / Omur Kyo /. The first written records of the village of Strelets date from 1526-1527. In the period from 1732. until 1786 the village was mentioned in 9 different documents under the name Uzun Omur. Legend has it that Emir Ismail was the first to settle here. In 1873. the village is recorded in Hadjiaglupazardzhishka as Homerje and there are 39 Muslim houses. The name can be translated as “Omer’s Well” or “Omer Village”. In 1942. It was renamed Sagittarius and later merged with the village of Lozenets.
In the earliest written source, the village of Severtsi / Mursalkyo / was mentioned in 167 by the name Mursel fakih and has 5 houses. In the period 1732 – 1789. it is found in various documents under the name Mursel kuyusu. In 18 years. is included in the Hadjioglu Pazardzhik said and has 4 Muslim houses. The word “mursel” means righteous, prophet, and kuyusu – well, meaning the name can be translated as “prophet’s well.” The village was settled mainly after the Liberation with migrants – mainly shepherds from Kotlensko and gardeners from Elensko. The local Turkish population did not move out massively after 1878. In1914. The village has 468 inhabitants – 280 Turks, 114 Bulgarians, 69 Gypsies, 4 Armenians, 1 Romanian. In the late 1920s, during the Romanian occupation, Bulgarian families from the northern village of Kataloi settled there. After the return of South Dobrudzha to Bulgaria in 1940. here come Bulgarians from the rest of the Romanian authorities villages Istria, Gargalak and Cumber.For the origin, the outer name of the village has the following assumptions: the first is related to the location – a village located to the north, and the second – a place where the north wind blows and there is heavy snowfall. in winter, resembling the cold north.
The village of Telerig / Hasyoseler / has been recorded in the Turkish tax register of the Jepel / sheep breeders since 1573. under the name Kössler. There is an interesting legend about the appearance of the village. Before the founding of the three neighboring villages – Telerig, Zimnitsa and Ognyanovo, a woman with her three sons came to these places. They did not agree and therefore divided the property into three parts and created three separate villages. Where the eldest son settled, the village of Kössler, the village of the Beardless, arose because he was a köse, that is, without a beard. Sometimes the prefix “hasy” is added to the basic name, which translates exactly, completely, that is, a village of completely, exactly the beardless. And the young son, known as Kyuchuk Ahmed, created a village with his name, later called Ognyanovo. The mother stayed in the third village – Zimnitsa. In 1873. Kössler village is included in Silistra said there are 50 Muslim houses and a Turkish appearance. After 1881. Bulgarians come from different villages of Northern Dobrudja, Sliven, Kotel, and some from Macedonia. Part of the Muslim population are settlers from Kazakhstan. In 1914. The village has 1410 inhabitants: 744 Turks, 552 Bulgarians, 67 Tatars, 25 Gypsies 3 Greeks, 19 Armenians. The Bulgarian ethnic element is also increasing with settlers from the villages of Kaynardja, Silistrensko, which is why one of the neighborhoods is called Kaynardzha. In 1940. here come immigrants from Tulchansko, northern Dobrudja. Since 1942. the village bears the name of Khan Telerig.
The old name of the village of Zimnitsa is Kara Kashta. The name may be given several interpretations of bark – black or bark – woman, bark – Polish. A cougar can also be translated as a basket, a winter house, a farm. That is, the name of the village can be translated into Bulgarian as “Polish sheepdog” or “woman’s basket”, “black sheepdog”. The Romanian authorities call it the “Wall of Cadunas” – the first word means a pen, and the second – the Cadun, a woman. The name Zimnitsa is an approximate translation of the Turkish name – as a synonym for wintering place, wintering place or as wintering ground – that is, cereals sown in the fall. Until 1888. mainly Muslim population lives in the village. The Bulgarian settlers here come mainly from Dryanovo, Gabrovo, Yambol. In 1914. The village has 796 inhabitants, of which 560 are Bulgarians, 150 Turks, 58 Gypsies, 28 Tatars.
The first written records of the village of Efreytor Bakalovo (Baraklar) are found in Ottoman documents from 1526 – 1527, which mentions the Barak kuyusu mausoleum. In the register of jalekesians since 1573. Baraclar is listed as a village with 4 houses. The name comes from “barrack” – hairy, rusty, dialect – curly, little dog. Sheep breeding has been well developed here in the past, which is supported by abundant grazing and water. The herds were guarded by large, rusty dogs called “barracks”. The bulk of the population are migrants from the Balkans. Some of the Muslim population in Bakalovo came from Kazakhstan. In 1914. 459 people live in the village, of which 419 are Turks, 18 Bulgarians, 16 Gypsies, 6 Armenians. In 1942, the village patron became a valiant Bulgarian soldier – Nikola Stoykov, who remained in military history with his surname Bakalov. Member of the First World War, killed on the battlefield in 1916.
In the register of jalekesians since 1573. the village of Ognianovo / Kyuchuk Ahmed, Nadezhda / is recorded under the name Kyuchuk Ahmedler and has 66 Muslim houses. In translation, the name means “the well of little Ahmed”. In 1888 the village was entirely Bulgarian and had 339 inhabitants who came from Silistra villages. Some of the Bulgarians are immigrants from the village of Kuyjuk, Stara Zagora. The village is named after Nadezhda in honor of the Bulgarian princess, sister of Boris III. The village is mentioned in “On the Wire” – one of the most famous stories of the singer of Dobrudzha – Yordan Yovkov, and remains forever in the Bulgarian literature. According to most residents, the name Ognyanovo is associated with Boycho Ognyanov, the main character in Ivan Vazov’s novel Under the Yoke.
The village of Gaber / Gürgenli / has been entered in the register of tax of avariz since 1676. It consisted of 8 Muslim houses. In 1873. it already has 30 Muslim houses and is included in said Silistra. Part of the Muslim population comes from Kazakhstan. The Bulgarians settled here after 1888 and are mainly from North Dobrudja. In 1914 the village had 748 inhabitants: 366 Turks, 349 Bulgarians, 23 Gypsies, 7 Armenians, 3 Tatars. The name is associated with the large hornbeam forests in the area and can be translated as hornbeam forest.
The village of Zagortsi / Kokarja / has been mentioned in the famous Turkish tax register of the Jepel / sheep breeders since 1573. as Kokardja kuyusu Isa, as well as in the tax register of 1676 with the name Kokarja. In 1873 it belongs to the Silistra Kaaz and has 8 Muslim and 6 Bulgarian houses. The first name of the village is related to the small predator pore. At the heart of today’s name is the term “Zagorec”, which means a resident of the area behind the forest, behind the mountain / Stara Planina /. In the past, the word forest was used as a synonym for mountain, and the lands north of Stara Planina were called Zagora, Zagore. The first Bulgarians who immigrated during the Ottoman rule came from Stara Zagora, Novopazar, Sliven, Yambol, Gabrovsko. One of the first settlers were representatives of the Marinov, Karageorgiv, Mihalevi, Katrandzhiev and other families. Kokardzha has a predominantly Turkish-Tatar appearance, with the ethnographic picture changing substantially in the early twentieth century. In 1914. The village has 656 inhabitants, of which 460 Bulgarians, 84 Turks, 84 Tatars, 24 Gypsies, 4 Jews.
The main factor determining the appearance of an ethnographic area is the livelihood of the population. Since the mid-nineteenth century, agriculture plays an important role in the economic life of Dobrudzha, which outlines the conditions for development of the Krushar region, forms the economic environment for the integration of different population groups and the functioning of the national culture, and remains deeply connected to everyday life and spirituality. to the well-wisher. It is no coincidence that foreign travelers who traveled to our lands in the 19th century admire that “of all the qualities that distinguish the Bulgarian people, their taste and ability for agriculture are the most remarkable, and among the various peoples inhabiting European Turkey, Bulgarians are considered for the best farmers. ”
Traditional agriculture covers several major sectors – agriculture, horticulture, viticulture, which, although closely related, have their specific economic importance and development in individual settlements.
When settling in the second half of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Bulgarians found vast areas of deserted land and developed fields. However, they also create new fields by plowing pastures and celeriacs or making “rooting” / clearing and excavation / of woodland. For the purposeful cultivation and natural fertility of the solid and difficult to plow Dobrudzha soil, a so-called “two-pole” system was introduced in the villages, in which half of the cultivated land is “rested” and used for grazing of livestock, and for sowing alternate “winterhouse” / wheat, barley, etc. / and “summer” / oats, corn, fries, etc. / What important role agriculture played as a livelihood of the population in the early twentieth century can be understood by pointing out that in the In 1911, for example, 89% of the total area in Dobrudja was cereals sown pulses. After the Liberation in 1878. a three-pole system is used, reducing the time for “resting” at levels and crop rotation being widely used. The main production is cereals – wheat, barley, rye, millet, oats. It is no coincidence that Dobrudja is called the “granary of Bulgaria”. After the First World War, a number of industrial crops began to grow – sunflower, soybean, fennel. Until the early twentieth century, traditional tillage tools were the wooden, curvilinear plow (called plow, uralu, uralitsa) and the plow. The large amount of land, the consolidated form of ownership, the specificity of the soil in the region necessitate the accelerated modernization of agriculture and the faster entry in the 1930s of new, modern for its time, factory tools of work – iron plows and harrows / “Buruni” /, harvesters, locomotive threshers.
According to the type of individual cultures, it is sown in the spring and in the fall, and the calendar holidays Simeonovden, Krustovden, Petkovden are especially suitable. Sowing, as the beginning of the whole agricultural cycle, is accompanied by a series of rituals and strict observance of certain prohibitions. In the seed prepared for the first day, wheat is harvested from last year’s “beard”, objects and plants are added, which according to popular belief have a stimulating and protective force – comb, red thread, silver coins, shells of red Easter eggs, onions, garlic , apples, nuts and more. It is also a safe practice to sprinkle coals and ashes around the seed car. Early in the morning, the bride, dressed in festive clothes, dotted with a green wrist, prepares the boogie and boiled hen for the sower, and the ox horns garnish with small cows. Upon arriving at the fields, the owner, facing east, to the rising sun, raises the pita high – to be high in wheat, and then rolls it over the first furrow and with gratitude, and a prayer to God and to the land nurse, eats a slice of bread, and the other part buries in the levels. Throwing the first handful of seeds is accompanied by blessings – to give birth to more fields, to be human, to enjoy their work. If there is seed left, it is scattered everywhere and does not return to the home – not to “return” the birch. Traditionally, the gates of the house remain open until the owner returns. In the evening, the whole family welcomes him and gathers around a rich table at which the place of honor is assigned to the sower.
The most important and expected moment of the farmer is the harvest. Young and old go out to the fields to reap extensive crops. Insufficient manpower necessitates the arrival of harvesting units from the Balkans / Elena, Kotlensko, Turnovsko / Until the beginning of the twentieth century, 50 to 60 thousand harvesters from different parts of the country come to Dobrudja every summer to help with the harvest. The main harvesting tools are the sickle, the wick / wooden glove / and the hair. On a good day, usually Monday, the first one to start is the one who has a light arm, whose job is arguing. “God Forward and We After Him” - bless the reapers and throw two or three classes in front of them, and in order not to be hurt by the cross and to dispute the work, they gird themselves with belts of woven cereal classes and special grass – controversy. Harvested wheat is put on hand. The rite of “straightening the first sheaf” is widespread. “This year I barely lift you, but next year I can’t lift you,” the owner called, straightening the bundle of red thread. And on the bundle, the bundles are stored in large stocks. Finding the so-called “king of the fields” / common class / is usually taken as a sign of a rich harvest. Known in all settlements is the custom of “weaving the beard”, which marks the end of the harvest. They choose nice, large classes, located next to each other, digging around with sickles and flares and young, skilful harvester, weaves the classes, twisting in the shallow red and white thread, cloves of garlic, silver steam. On the finished beard, the reapers wash their hands and shake out crumbs of bread and cheese. According to local ritual practices, the “beard” is either cut and placed in the home – next to the hearth, next to the iconostasis, in the barn, or left on the levels, with the classes bent to the ground. And when it comes to sowing again, a few beard classes plunge into the seed. Various rituals are performed around it – the reapers are rolling – to “roll” the bundles next year, to play the choir. Finally, they are blessed for fertility and, facing east, toward the sun, they throw sickles over their shoulders. Depending on how they fall and where the point is pointed, health and marriage are at stake. “Come, level, help, God, next year, bigger beard, bigger kind” – bless the reapers and say goodbye to the fields. The sheaf ride is a holiday for the farmer. Each owner decorates oxen and carts with greenery, flowers, wrists, and the girls, dressed in their most seductive changes, get on the cars for the whole village to see. The hostess greets the reapers with a water-filled copper, decorated with red thread and geranium – to pour the wheat on the water, to have health and fertility.
Again on a good day – Monday or Wednesday, at a certain, prepared advance place – Harman, the beginning begins. The main tools are the booms, stone and wooden rollers, also called maple, hammer, tukmak, romel. The herpes thrush is also widespread. The whole herd (from 10 to 20 or more horses) is allowed to run freely in the closed harman and the experienced herd guides the animals. This practice was widespread in the Krushar region until the 1920s. From the first and last harman, no grain is loaned – not to give the briquette. At the end of the work, a sacrificial rooster car rolls. For the first time, bread mixed with the new flour is related to two basic practices: letting a small cake in the water – providing moisture for the crops and pouring the wheat as water, and giving it to relatives and neighbors – for health and prosperity.
Particularly dangerous for the harvest in the anhydrous Dobrudja is the drought. Rain and butterflies are widespread throughout the region – Butterfly and German. The rituals performed are practiced either once, at the end of May, or unrestricted, in the event of drought, when rain is needed for sowing, with free practice predominantly characteristic of Thracian settlers. The main ritual person in the first custom is the butterfly – a pure girl who is not yet mature, and the other participants, aged 12-13, are called butterflies. They are usually barefoot, dressed only with a long white cotton shirt, and trimmed on the waist and head with twigs and foliage – bazak, elder, dock, nettles and more. The band tours the houses and performs special ritual songs everywhere. In each home, the girls play their ritual dance, with the mistress flooding the butterfly, the yard and the outbuildings with water, and finally bringing in a sieve of flour – a gift for the girls. The sieve is then rolled up and, as it falls, is thought to be fertile. Everywhere the custom ends with bathing butterflies on the river or the fountain, and the greenery of the garment is thrown into the water. In most villages on the same day or a few days after that, German is performed and usually the same girls are participants. Among the migrants from North Dobrudzha is the name Kaloyan. The main point is the production of a mud doll, which is a small male figure – 30-50 cm, with pronounced sexual characteristics. The Germancho is placed between two Turkish tiles that serve as an ark, a candle and greenery are placed in his hands, after which the custom follows the main moments of the true funeral – mourning, burial, dining and after-funeral customs. The mourning of the “dead man” always indicates the cause of death – the drought, with emphasis on the plight of the farmer and the request for rain. Germano is buried in fields, gardens, by the river. On the 40th day the doll is dug up and thrown into the water, and if it has been raining before then the ritual is performed immediately. The custom was practiced until the mid-twentieth century.
Related to ancient ideas and beliefs, work customs and rituals have one common meaning – providing a rich harvest, giving thanks to the land that bestows people with its generosity, the hope that the work of the farmers will again be rewarded with the richest, most valuable and a magic gift – Bread.
Until the middle of the 19th century, animal husbandry occupied a prime place in the economic life of Dobrudzha. The development of this sector is facilitated by favorable natural and economic conditions, extensive forests and deserted lands, extensive agriculture. In the past, large flocks of sheep, horses, cattle enlivened the endless plain and winter and summer. At the beginning of the twentieth century, an average of 2,880 sheep, 252 horses, 650 cattle per 1000 inhabitants in Southern Dobrudzha.
Sheep breeding is of major importance for the Dobrudzha population. This is evidenced not only by the statistics, but also by the names of many settlements – for example, Caracachla / village. Winterhouse. Depending on the way the animals are reared, this livelihood has two main forms – smallholding and breeding sheep. When in the first decades of the 19th century shepherds from Kotel, Gradets, Medven, Zheravna and other settlements in the Balkans left the “Dolno Pole” and began to establish themselves permanently with their numerous flocks in Dobrudzha, they already have a complete form of organization which is located in the new conditions are only favorable ground for further development. In its economic and social essence, the Kotlenska cottage represents more or less an association of small shepherd owners (20-30 and more in number), dictated by the common interests of the farmers for feeding and preserving the herds, milk processing and selling the products. The owner of the largest herd, called a kehaya, heads the entire business of the cattle farm, maintains the accounts and takes care of the fair distribution of costs and revenues. Twice a year – at St. George’s Day and St. Dimitrovden’s day, radiation is made (separation of the flocks), the mass is calculated (expenses) and profit is distributed. During the first years of their residence in Dobrudja, the shepherd shepherds rented buildings, but soon began to build their own cottages with everything needed for the flocks and the people – sheep for the sheep, rooms for the shepherds, travel rooms, warehouses, etc. The greatest boom of the boiler houses was recorded in the period between the Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829 and the Crimean one from 1853 to 1856, and the oily Dobrudzha Tulum cheese, pita kashkaval, tasty content, not only met the needs of the local population, but they are widely known and find an excellent market in many settlements of the then empire. The cougars in the then Hadjioglupazardzhik district were numerous. Foreign travelers who have traveled to our lands describe the rich pastures with thousands of sheep of enterprising shepherds.
In the new socio-economic conditions, after the Liberation of Bulgaria, sheep breeding gradually gave way to its prime place in the economic life of agriculture, which became established as the main livelihood of the population.
The horse in Dobrudja is of special honor. It is also dedicated to one of the big calendar holidays – Todorovsky, called Equestrian Easter. The importance of the horse in the life of the population, the deep and strong attachment between man and the beautiful animal, is mirrored in the creative work of Yordan Yovkov. In the Bulgarian lands only in Dobrudzha there is a steppe form of the development of horse breeding, in which an icy trapping of animals was applied. The horses were bred in large flocks, called hogs / studs /, and were used only for threshing, and were harvested in homes and sai on cold winter days. Freely grazing herds are found in the Krushar region until the 1940s. After the Liberation, the horse completely displaced cattle as a harnessing force throughout the economic life of the population, and fast-growing horse breeding is an increasingly common livelihood in the region.
A beekeeping business is a favorite business for the Dobrudzha. Good natural conditions for grazing of bees favor the cultivation of hives in every village. Characteristic of the area are the ancient cone-shaped dome-shaped grasses (hats) – hand-woven by the owner hives made of scraper, willow branches, plastered on the outside and inside with clay and beef manure. Also used are log hives – stalks covered with a piece of mat or board on top. The hoods of grass on the grasses protect the bees from freezing in the winter and the melt in the summer. In grazing years favorable for grazing, 70 – 80 kg or more of honey can be removed from one hive. Beekeeping is more widespread in villages with old local populations. And in the woodlands, wild beekeeping is also known.
Although supplemental livelihoods, viticulture has its traditions mainly in villages with migrants from the Balkans (for example, the village of Zagortsi). It was also a livelihood for the Bulgarians who came to the village of Lozenets, who came from Kotel, Chirpan, Haskovo. The vineyards grown by the inhabitants also determine the name of the village – Karabalar. Almost every owner had 1 to 2 acres of vineyard. Linden, Siberian, Argilian, Indica are only a part of the traditional Dobrudja grape varieties. Grapes are usually in late September and early October. It is believed that the grapes are not ready for wine until the Crossing Day (September 14th). Everywhere the grains are tamped with their feet and the breadth is collected in wooden vessels and allowed to boil for about 20 days. Rakia is usually brewed from gills in the autumn. Among the settlers from North Dobrudzha, the sweeter wine is preferred, for the production of which, in individual settlements, the grapes are grafted in sacks and cut across the breadth. The wine is a traditional drink for the Dobrudzha and is present at the table, along with the bread, on weekdays and holidays.
The craftsmanship Dobrudzha focuses mainly on cities. In the villages, there are certain crafts related to the processing of raw materials, while others are developed as a necessary addition to the basic livelihoods – agriculture and animal husbandry.
Geography of Berkovitsa Municipality
Berkovitsa Municipality covers an area of 464 sq km. It is the southernmost municipality of Montana Province. It lies on the northern slopes of the western Balkan mountains, with hilly terrain broken up by streams flowing through its territory. The area is rich in wildlife and vegetation, with blueberries and raspberries filling the stomachs of many a wanderer during long summer afternoons.
There are 20 villages and towns in the municipality with a total population of about 18,000 people. Almost 75% of the population, over 13,000 people, reside in the town of Berkovitsa. Barziya, population 1400, and Zamfirovo, population 1200, are the only other villages of any size. None of the rest rises above 300 souls. They include Balyuvitsa, Bistrilitsa, Bokilovtsi, Borovtsi, Chereshovitsa, Gaganitsa, Komarevo, Kostentsi, Kotenovtsi, Leskovets, Mezdreya, Parlichevo, Pesochnitsa, Rashovitsa, Slatina, Tsvetkova Bara, and Yagodovo.
Economy of Berkovitsa Municipality
Tourism in Krushari Municipality
Some of the more popular destinations are:
- Dry River Ships
- Gaber Village Fortress
- Gaiur Evleli Rock Monastery Complex
- St. Cyril Fortress
- St. Cyril Fortress Martyrium
- Telerig Ancient Cult Center
Museums in Krushari Municipality
Berkovitsa Ethnographic Museum
Ivan Vazov House Museum
Klisurski Monastery Museum
Krushari Municipality celebrates its holiday every year on October 26, Dimitrovden. In cases where October 26 is a business day, the holiday is celebrated every last Saturday of October.
Horse races, performances by choirs from the community centers of Krushari municipality, as well as visiting folklore groups are organized for the Municipality’s holiday. Various awards competitions are organized for the youngest residents of Krushari Municipality.
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